Jet propellent (or Jet fuel) is a clear to straw colored fuel, based on either an unleaded kerosene oil (Jet A-1), or a naphtha-kerosene blend (Jet B). It is similar to diesel fuel, and can be used in either compression ignition engines or turbine engines.
- JP-4 (or JP4) is a jet fuel, specified in 1951 by the U.S. government (MIL-J-5624E). It was a 50-50 kerosene-gasoline blend. It has lower flash point than JP-1, but was preferred because of its greater availability. It was the primary U.S. Air Force jet fuel between 1951 and 1995. Its NATO code is F-40. It is also known as AVTAG.
- JP-5 (or JP5) is a jet fuel that weighs 6.8 pounds per gallon and has a high flash point (min. 60 °C (140 °F)). It was developed in 1952 for use in aircraft stationed aboard aircraft carriers where the risk from fire is particularly great. JP-5 remains the primary jet fuel for most navies. Its NATO code is F-44. It is also called AVCAT.
- JP-8 (or JP8) is a jet fuel, specified in 1990 by the U.S. government. It is kerosene-based. It is a replacement for the JP-4 fuel; the U.S. Air Force replaced JP-4 with JP-8 completely by the fall of 1996, in order to use less flammable, less hazardous fuel for better safety and combat survivability. It'd NATO code if F-34.
- Other uses:
- In the U.S. military, JP-8 and JP-5 are used in the diesel engines of nearly all tactical ground vehicles and electrical generators. The M1 Abrams series of battle tanks also uses JP fuel in its gas turbine engine. The use of a single fuel for most combat applications greatly simplifies the wartime logistics system.
- JP-8 is also used by Army Food Service Specialists (cooks) to fuel Modern Burner Units (MBUs).
- Other uses:
- Jet-A1, also known as AVTUR, is the most common commercial jet fuel in use worldwide. It is a kerosene oil-based fuel and is similar to JP-8.
- Jet-B is a commerical naphtha-kerosene fuel used for turbine engine-powered aviation. It is similar to JP-4. Jet-B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle, and it is thus restricted only to areas where its cold-weather characteristics are absolutely necessary.